Pseudotsuga menziesii, Douglas Fir

Size: tree, 40-80' average height at maturity

Buds: winter buds long-pointed and dark brown with several imbricate scales, nonresinous

Leaves: evergreen, spirally arranged, often 2-ranked, 1-1.5" long, thin, vary between blue-green, dark green, and gray-green, 2 white bands of stomata on underside

Twigs: smooth surface after normal leaf drop, semicircular leaf scars

Flowers: monoecious, males pendulous and in leaf axils, females terminal and rose-red when young

Fruit: cones pendulous, oval to ovoid, 3-4" long, 1.5-2" wide, conspicuous 3-pointed bracts project from between scales

Bark: old trunks have thick red-brown ridges divided by fissures