Abies homolepis, Nikko Fir

Tips for identifying firs: linear needles, flat in cross-section (in  contrast to angular spruce), twigs smooth, leaf scars more or less  circular, cones upright with scales that fall off at maturity

Size: tree, 30-50' average height at maturity

Buds: ovoid, resinous

Leaves: evergreen, form an almost solid cushion, do not appear two-ranked as some other firs do, .33-1.13" long, flat apex, slightly notched, dark green, glossy above, vivid white stomatal bands on underside

Twigs: deeply grooved

Flowers: monoecious

Fruit: cones cylindrical, 4-5", sometimes ruby-red when young, more often green, pale brown when older