Carpinus caroliniana, American Hornbeam

Size: tree, 30' average height at maturity

Buds: small, about .125", less 4-angled than C. betulus, 2-ranked, often dark brown on lower portion, individual bud scales very small

Leaves: deciduous, alternate, 2.5-5" long by 1-2" wide, simple, ovate oblong, acuminate, sharply doubly serrate, dark green, fall color includes yellow, orange, red, or red-purple

Twigs: slender and numerous, dark red-brown

Flowers: monoecious, male catkins to 1.5", females 2-4" with conspicuous 3-lobed bracts up to 1.5", central bract lobed

Fruit: nutlet at base of 3-lobed bract, whole fruit structure up to 4"

Bark: dark blue-gray, close fitting, often fluted (muscle-like)