Carpinus betulus, European Hornbeam

Size: tree, 40-60' average height at maturity, 30-40' spread

Buds: large, about .25", many imbricate scales, 2-ranked, often dark brown on lower part

Leaves: deciduous, alternate, 2.5-5" long, 1-2" wide, simple, ovate to ovate-oblong, short point at apex, sharply double serrate, dark green in summer, yellow or yellow-green in fall

Twigs: olive-brown, glabrous, prominent lenticels

Flowers: monoecious, male catkins 1.5" long, female flowers up to 3" long with large conspicuous 3-lobed bracts

Fruit: ribbed nutlet at base of bract, .25"

Bark: dark gray, often fluted