Betula alleghaniensis, Yellow Birch

Size: tree, 60-75' average height at maturity, 100' spread

Buds: imbricate, usually slightly pubescent, at slight angle to twigs, individual bud scales fairly uniform in color but usually somewhat darker band at top of each scale

Leaves: deciduous, alternate, 3-5" long, 1.5-2.5" wide, simple, ovate to oblong ovate, doubly serrate, dull dark green on top

Twigs: tan or light gray, short "spur" branches on older wood, each terminated by a bud, wintergreen scent and taste

Flowers: monoecious, unlike alder, winter catkins of one type only (male; females look like regular buds), usually 5-8, greenish, about 1" long and .25" wide

Fruit: small winged nutlet in a strobile about 1" wide and .6" long

Bark: trunk yellowish, exfoliating